domingo, 7 de outubro de 2007

Oil Still Make People Poor

Oil workers in Ho Chi Minh City keep the state-owned PetroVietnam pipeline in full flow


At night, the streets of Phnom Penh reveal the country's vast wealth gap. In front of shopping centers selling luxury cosmetics, whole families sleep on patches of sidewalk; beggars missing limbs, a legacy of civil war, crowd outside upscale restaurants where a tiny élite downs French entrées and chic cocktails. But many average Cambodians hope this poverty will vanish, thanks to an apparent miracle: the country has discovered oil. Off Cambodia's southern coast, explorers have found as much as 500 million barrels, potentially providing over $1 billion annually to the country.

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Cambodia is hardly unique. As oil prices hit record levels, multinationals are hunting for black gold in ever more unlikely places, and many Southeast Asian nations now are eagerly exploring new fields. Yet few seem to realize that rather than miracles, oil often brings misery, including the massive graft witnessed in some petroleum-rich African and Middle Eastern states.
Ten years ago, with a barrel of oil dipping to about $10, there was little interest in Southeast Asian petroleum, other than established deposits in Indonesia and Brunei. But now, global instability and rising demand from India and China have spiked oil prices to over $80 per barrel, and governments are nationalizing major fields from Russia to Venezuela. At the same time, as offshore technology improves, oil firms can hunt in deeper, tougher waters, like the Timor Gap between Australia and East Timor. So the region has exploded with oil fever. Vietnam plans to explore in seven offshore blocks, Malaysia this summer launched the deepwater Kikeh field, and Indonesia expects production from its vast Cepu oil field to start next year. East Timor could earn at least $10 billion from the Gap, and Burma has discovered offshore fields that could contain 2.5 trillion cubic feet (70.8 billion cubic meters) of gas.
But oil can lead to the "resource curse" — a government-connected élite profits, most people still suffer, and the economy winds up dependent on petroleum and facing inflation from rising oil revenues. Nigeria, for example, ranks in the top 10 of world oil exporters, yet 60% of Nigerians live below the poverty line, and the country's Economic and Financial Crimes Commission has said that the government has stolen or wasted some $400 billion, a fair share of which presumably came from oil.

Many Asian countries could go Nigeria's way so far as oil is concerned. Cambodia, which is still recovering from the Khmer Rouge era, ranks near the bottom of Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index, and does not possess the institutions to monitor how the government uses its new oil riches. East Timor's economy will have almost no other foundations — studies estimate over 90% of government revenues eventually will come from oil. Before its latest brutal crackdown on peaceful protestors, Burma's military regime already demonstrated such little concern for its people that it reportedly spent among the lowest on health care per person of any government on the planet. Hiding out in its new jungle capital Naypyidaw, the junta has not even suggested that oil money will benefit its people. While many oil companies support the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative, which pushes countries to explain how they spend petroleum money, Chinese oil giants, dominant in Burma, refuse to sign up. Even Brunei, a country that at least used decades of petroleum wealth to provide free health care, is not immune. Suckled on oil, Bruneians demonstrate minimal entrepreneurship, leaving the country with almost no industry when oil runs out, possibly within 20 years.

Some Southeast Asian governments seem to want to learn from the mistakes committed by other countries. East Timor has created a national petroleum fund to save revenues for future generations. Dili has also enlisted advisers from Norway, one of the best examples of putting black gold to good use, to manage its oil money. But noble intentions are not enough. East Timor NGOs worry that their country's oil laws are so vague that they open the door to mismanagement and skimming. A damning World Bank–Indonesia joint study earlier this year showed Indonesia was struggling to spend state funds on decent development projects.

Cambodia could be the biggest worry. Prime Minister Hun Sen has pledged to steer oil revenues toward poverty reduction, but his government has offered no clear plans of how it will ensure riches are spent wisely. The promise of wealth has already sparked a property boom in Phnom Penh, a possible early sign of inflation. In the future, no doubt, Cambodia's capital will boast even more classy French bistros. But it just might have more beggars, too.

With reporting by Joshua Kurlantzick is a visiting scholar at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace and the author of Charm Offensive: How China's Soft Power is Transforming the World

1 comentário:

IBU SRI MUSDALIFHA disse...

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saya hubungi AKI SOLEH pasti akan di bantu Oleh Beliau Seperti saya wassalam

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Assalamualaikum Pengakuan tulus dari saya sendiri IBU SRI MUSDALIFHA, Saya Sengaja ingin menulis
sedikit kesaksian untuk berbagi, barangkali ada teman-teman yang sedang
kesulitan masalah keuangan, Awal mula saya mengamalkan Pesugihan Tanpa
Tumbal karena usaha saya bangkrut dan saya menanggung hutang sebesar
785,juta saya hampir mau bunuh diri tidak tau harus bagaimana agar bisa
melunasi hutang saya, saya coba buka-buka internet dan saya bertemu
dengan AKI SOLEH , awalnya saya ragu dan tidak percaya tapi selama 1 hari
saya berpikir,akhirnya saya bergabung dan menghubungi AKI SOLEH
kata Pak.AKI pesugihan yang cocok untuk saya adalah pesugihan tuyul saya hanya cuma ngonterak 7 bulan aja dan akhirnya hutang-hutang saya pun suda terlunasi, Semua petunjuk saya ikuti
dan hanya 1 hari Astagfirullahallazim, Alhamdulilah akhirnya 15M yang saya
minta benar benar ada di tangan saya semua hutang saya lunas dan sisanya
buat modal usaha. sekarang rumah sudah punya dan mobil pun sudah ada.
Maka dari itu, setiap kali ada teman saya yang mengeluhkan nasibnya, saya
sering menyarankan untuk menghubungi AKI SOLEH Di Tlp 082-313-336-747
Atau Kunjungi Situs AKI KLIK DISINI ( PESUGIHAN PUTIH AHLI DUKUN SAKTI TERPERCAYA )
agar di
berikan arahan. Supaya tidak langsung datang ke jawa timur, saya sendiri dulu
hanya berkonsultasi jarak jauh. Alhamdulillah, hasilnya sangat baik, jika anda ingin seperti
saya hubungi AKI SOLEH pasti akan di bantu Oleh Beliau Seperti saya wassalam


INILAH JENIS MACAM PESUGIHAN DAN BOCORAN TOGEL 2D 3D 4D 5D 6D


>PESUGIHAN TUYUL| PELARIS USAHA
>BOCORAN TOGEL 2D 3D 4D 5D 6D
>PESUGIHAN UANG GAIB
>PESUGIHAN JIN KHODAM
>PESUGIHAN ASMA
>PESUGIHAN UANG SEPASANG
>PESUGIHAN UANG BALIK
>PESUGIHAN JUAL JANIN
>PESUGIHAN PUTIH TAMPA TUMBAL
>PESUGIHAN NIKAH JIN
>PELARISAN DAGANG
>JUAL TANAH DAN RUMAH